The accumulated sediment reduces the pipe’s hydraulic capacity. (2004) confirmed that negative pressure transients can occur in the distribution system and that the intruded water can travel downstream from the site of entry.

Grayman et al. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. SCADA could then divert water to the affected region from a different pump station, thus ensuring adequate supply and fire flow protection. Photo courtesy of Bureau of Laboratory Services, Philadelphia Water Department. As a result, some sediment and biofilm may not be removed, and the cleanup method requires a substantial quantity of water. HYDRAULICS OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS, Chapter 5: Reliability of water distribution systems, which is necessary to minimize outages, is provided by building redundancy in the system in the form of looping and backup sources. Comprehensive Handbook on Water Quality Analysis for Distribution Systems. Pressure Wave Analysis of Transient Flow in Pipe Distribution Systems. To minimize any negative environmental impacts (as flushed water may be high in suspended solids and other contaminants that can harm waterbodies), flushed water is normally discharged into sanitary or combined sewers or storm water management facilities. A loss of hydraulic integrity implies a loss of positive line pressures, flow reversals, rapid changes in velocity, a reduction in hydraulic capacity, a detrimental increase in water residence time, or a combination of these events. FIGURE 5-3 Typical locations for various surge protection devices. Excessive residence times can lead to low disinfectant residuals and leave certain service areas with a less protected drinking water supply. Most were caused by the sudden shutdown of pumps at a pump station because of either unintentional (e.g., power outages) or intentional (e.g., pump stoppage or startup tests) circumstances. FIGURE 5-5 Unidirectional flushing results in water flowing toward the hydrant in only one direction resulting in higher velocity, more scouring, and better cleaning of the mains with less water use. A final component of hydraulic integrity is maintaining sufficient mixing and turnover rates in storage facilities.

Because no two distribution systems are hydraulically the same, there are no general rules or universally applicable guidelines for eliminating objectionable pressures in distribution systems. Hydrant tests are performed to determine if fire flow requirements are met as an indicator of the hydraulic strength of the water system. Because of demand variations there is a great deal of mixing between the water sources at various nodes in the system leading to wide variations in trihalomethane (THM) values over a given day. water hammer) or external threats (e.g.

SOURCE: Reprinted, with permission, from Boulos et al. FREE

Mahmood, F., J. G. Pimblett, N. O. The swabs travel along the water main and scrub the scale encrustations and slime build-up from the inner pipe walls. Hydraulic models illustrate the effects of changing demand and climactic conditions on water distribution and wastewater collection systems – predicting pressures and identifying bottlenecks – and demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed solutions.
Denver, CO: AwwaRF. Denver, CO: AWWA. It is important to optimize flushing programs, as excessive flushing can waste significant volumes of water. Gauthier, V., C. Rosin, L. Mathieu, J. M. Portal, J. C. Block, P. Chaix, and D. Gatel. A fire-flow demand or large water use on a dead-end main can only draw water through a single pipe, with the maximum flow dictated by the size and length of the pipe. (2004) list many benefits of remote monitoring and network modeling for water security protection. In: Proceedings of the AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference. Alternatively, WaterGEMS users can optimize the design for you using the built-in Darwin Designer network optimization tool. Carriere, A., B. Barbeau, V. Gauthier, C. Morissette, R. Millette and A.Lalumiere. Flushing should start at a clean water source (e.g., pump station) and proceed outward in the system so that flushing water is drawn from previously flushed reaches. Intrusion can be minimized by knowing the causes of pressure surges, defining the system’s response to surges, and estimating the system’s susceptibility to contamination when surges occur (Friedman et al., 2004). This ensures that clean water is always used to flush the mains. Scrapers are devices that use springs to force blades against the wall of the pipe. It is common practice to reline a cleaned pipeline to protect the newly exposed metallic pipeline material.

The most common technique is to use concrete mortar applied to the internal surface, a technology that has been used for over 50 years. Water utilities often find themselves choosing between two approaches to preserve system hydraulic integrity: (1) reacting only to emergencies or (2) acting to prevent problems from occurring. multiple mains and directions, it becomes very difficult to achieve the high-velocity flushing required to scour and remove deposits (as shown in Figure 5-4). Gauthier et al. UKWIR Report #01/DW/03/17. A second element of hydraulic integrity is the reliability of supply, which refers to the ability of the system to maintain the desirable flow rate even when components are out of service (e.g., facility outage, pipe break) and is normally accomplished by providing redundancy in the system. 97(3):74–88. A new loop-flow-type method, relying on the novel triangulation based loops identification algorithm (TRIBAL) that was implemented in the corresponding new hydraulic solver (ΔQ), is presented in this paper (TRIBAL-ΔQ). The normal flow of water through the system will reduce some but not all sediment accumulation over time, and supplemental measures are periodically needed to clear out the system. London: UKWIR Ltd. Panguluri, S., W. M. Grayman, and R. M. Clark. A brief discussion of each technique follows. Ideally, the verification of hydraulic integrity should involve real-time monitoring of pressure, flow direction, and velocity based on telemetry data. We do a lot of pump station design and water system plans, and currently use WaterCAD for analysis, and do any drafting manually. Cincinnati, OH: EPA Office of Research and Development. WATER QUALITY MODELING CASE STUDIES, Chapter 14:
(2000) recommend that to avoid stratification in distribution storage facilities, the fill time should exceed the mixing time. The data generated from the sensors and transmitters is conveyed to the central control system using various communication media such as telephone lines, fiber optic cables, or radio and cellular systems. AWWA Manual M32: Computer modeling of water distribution systems. 2003.